Blooms TaxonomyBloom's Taxonomy was created by Benjamin Bloom in 1950. This 'older version' contains nouns as the stages or levels. Bloom stated that learning fits into three domains;
  • Cognitive- This focuses on knowledge (Blooms Taxonomy)
  • Affective- This focuses on the students attitudes and feelings
  • Psychomotor- This focuses on physical skill.

Within Blooms Taxonomy (knowledge) he identified six different levels. He labeled them as nouns; knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Bloom organised these cognitive domains into a continuum that ranged from lower order thinking to higher order thinking (see diagram 1). These were split into higher order thinking and lower order thinking skills.
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Diagram 1: Blooms Taxonomy 1950

Bloom suggested that for effective learning to take place it would have to begin with knowledge and then be built upon with comprehension, then application and so forth.

Blooms Revised Taxonomy
In the 1990's two of Bloom's former students (Anderson and Krathwohl) developed and published Blooms Revised Taxonomy. The main changes that these theorists made was the use of verbs instead of nouns and slightly reordered the Taxonomy (changed evaluation and synthesis). Anderson and Krathwohl believed that 'synthesis' or 'creating' was higher than 'evaluation' or 'evaluating'. The revised taxonomy can be seen in diagram 2.
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Diagram 2 Blooms Revised Taxonomy

Within each element Anderson and Krathwohl identified verbs that described the processes that needed to take place to achieve the element. These include:

  • Creating- designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making
  • Evaluating - Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, Experimenting, judging, testing, Detecting, Monitoring
  • Analysing - Comparing, organising, deconstructing, Attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating
  • Applying - Implementing, carrying out, using, executing
  • Understanding - Interpreting, Summarising, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying
  • Remembering - Recognising, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding

Blooms Digital Taxonomy

Blooms Taxonomy was revised again to 'bring it up to speed' with the 21st century. One main different is the introduction of technology and Web 2.0 tools. Within this 'digital verbs' have been introduced (Andrew Churches, 2001). Collaboration has also been introduced and has a large impact on the effectiveness of the taxonomy (Diagram 3).
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Diagram 3: Blooms Digital Taxonomy (Churches, A, 2001)

Diagram 4 shows The Digital Taxonomy with Web 2.0 tools that are applicable to the taxonomy level. Some of these Web 2.0 tools can be applied at different levels depending on the teaching activity that the tool is enhancing. Remember technology and Web 2.0 tools should only be used to facilitate and enhance teaching, 'not just for the sake of it.'

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Diagram 4: Blooms Digital Taxonomy (Churches, A, 2001)

Jason Milner References
Anderson, L. W. and Krathwohl, D. R., et al 2000, A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Allyn & Bacon, USA.

Chapman, L 'The Aligned Curriculum' (2008) sited from

Churches, A (2001) 'Bloom's Digital Taxonomy' (2001) sited from

Forehand, M. (2005). 'Bloom's taxonomy' Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved 13 July 2012, from

Blooms Digital Technology

Bloom Digital Taxonomy 2001 Andrew Churches